Parvovirus B-19 Antibody Test

Parvovirus B-19, known as “fifth disease,” primarily affects children in the form of a rash. A bright red rash on both cheeks with a “slapped face” pattern first appears, followed by a rash on the arms, legs, and trunk. The rash typically fades from the center outwards, giving it a lacy appearance. Although it usually lasts for 5 to 14 days, the rash may appear intermittently for several weeks. Sunlight, heat, exercise, fever, or emotional stress can cause the rash to reappear.

Test Description

Parvovirus B-19, known as “fifth disease,” primarily affects children in the form of a rash. A bright red rash on both cheeks with a “slapped face” pattern first appears, followed by a rash on the arms, legs, and trunk. The rash typically fades from the center outwards, giving it a lacy appearance. Although it usually lasts for 5 to 14 days, the rash may appear intermittently for several weeks. Sunlight, heat, exercise, fever, or emotional stress can cause the rash to reappear. Parvovirus B-19 can also affect adults. Joint pain and swelling are more common symptoms in adults. The majority of adults have antibodies to the parvovirus, meaning they have been exposed to the virus and likely had no or very minor symptoms. However, the disease can be serious for some people. Patients with sickle cell anemia or similar types of chronic anemia can suffer from acute anemia during this illness. If a pregnant woman becomes infected with parvovirus B-19 during the first half of pregnancy, there is a <5% risk that the fetus will have severe anemia and miscarriage may occur.
 
Parvovirus B-19 Antibody

THE EVIDENCE FOR PRACTICE

Pregnant women exposed to parvovirus B-19 should have serologic screening performed to
determine if they are at risk for seroconversion.

Normal Values

Negative

Possible Meanings of Abnormal Values

Increased
  • IgM—active infection with parvovirus B-19
  • IgG—previous exposure to parvovirus B-19; lifetime immunity

Interventions/Implications

Pretest

  • Explain to the patient the purpose of the test and the need for a blood sample to be
  • drawn.
  • No fasting is required before the test.

Procedure

  • A 7-mL blood sample is drawn in a red-top collection tube.
  • Gloves are worn throughout the procedure.

Posttest

  • Apply pressure at venipuncture site. Apply dressing, periodically assessing for continued bleeding.
  • Label the specimen and transport it to the laboratory.
  • Report abnormal findings to the primary care provider.

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Dr Lobby | DrLobby.com: Parvovirus B-19 Antibody Test
Parvovirus B-19 Antibody Test
Parvovirus B-19, known as “fifth disease,” primarily affects children in the form of a rash. A bright red rash on both cheeks with a “slapped face” pattern first appears, followed by a rash on the arms, legs, and trunk. The rash typically fades from the center outwards, giving it a lacy appearance. Although it usually lasts for 5 to 14 days, the rash may appear intermittently for several weeks. Sunlight, heat, exercise, fever, or emotional stress can cause the rash to reappear.
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